CONEM Autism Research

At the Council for Nutritional and Environmental Medicine (CONEM) is autism one of the primary research fields. This research is performed in extensive collaboration with international research environments.


Nutritional and Environmental Influences on Autism Spectrum Disorder
Bjørklund G, Chartrand M
J Nutr Disorders The 2016;6(1):e123. doi:10.4172/2161-0509.1000e123

Diet and Autism Spectrum Disorder

Acid Glycosaminoglycan (aGAG) Excretion is increased in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, and it can be controlled by Diet
Endreffy I, Bjørklund G, Dicső F, Urbina MA, Endreffy E
Metab Brain Dis 2016;31:273-278. PubMed PMID: 26464064

A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Digestive Enzymes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Saad K, Eltayeb AA, Mohamad IL, Al-Atram AA, Elserogy Y, Bjørklund G, El-Houfey AA, Nicholson B
Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci 2015;13:188-193. PubMed PMID:26243847

Dietary Adequacy of Egyptian Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Compared to Healthy Developing Children
Meguid NA, Anwar M, Bjørklund G, Hashish A, Chirumbolo S, Hemimi M, Sultan E
Metab Brain Dis. 2017 Jan 10. doi:10.1007/s11011-016-9948-1. PubMed PMID: 28074329

Vitamins and Autism Spectrum Disorder

Vitamin D Deficiency: A Global Health Problem
Bjørklund G
Peertechz J Environ Sci Toxicol 2016; 1(1): 023-024

The Role of Vitamin D in the Immune System as a Pro-survival Molecule 
Chirumbolo S, Bjørklund G, Sboarina A, Vella A
Clinical Therapeutics 2017;39:894-916. PubMed PMID: 28438353 (IF 2.925)

Vitamin D Status in Autism Spectrum Disorders and the Efficacy of Vitamin D Supplementation in Autistic Children
Saad K, Abdel-rahman AA, Elserogy YM, Al-Atram AA, Cannell JJ, Bjørklund G, Abdel-Reheim MK, Othman HAK, El-Houfey AA, Hashem EA, Abd El-Aziz NHR, Abd El-Baseer KA, Ahmed AE, Ali AM
Nutr Neurosci 2016;19:346-351. PubMed PMID: 25876214

Randomized-Controlled Trial of Vitamin D Supplementation in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Saad K, Abdel-rahman AA, Elserogy YM, Al-Atram AA, El-Houfey AA, Othman HAK, Bjørklund G, Jia F, Urbina MA, Abo-Elela MGM, Ahmad FA, Abd El-Baseer KA, Ahmed AE, Abdel-Salam AM
J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2016. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12652. PubMed PMID: 27868194

The Amino Acids Tryptophan and Phenylalanine

*How Important is Tryptophan in Human Health?
Kałużna-Czaplińska J, Gątarek P, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Chartrand MS, Bjørklund G
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2017. Accepted (IF 6.077)

*Tryptophan Status in Autism Spectrum Disorder and the Influence of Supplementation on Its Level
Kałużna-Czaplińska J, Jóźwik-Pruska J, Chirumbolo S, Bjørklund G
Metab Brain Dis 2017. doi: 10.1007/s11011-017-0045-x

ADHD, Autism and Neuroradiological Complications among Phenylketonuric Children in Upper Egypt
Saad K, Elserogy Y, Abdel Rahman AA, Al-Atram AA, Mohamad IL, ElMelegy TTH, Bjørklund G, El-Houfy AA
Acta Neurol Belg. 2015; 115(4): 657-663. PubMed PMID: 25576444

Essential Trace Elements

Interactions of Iron with Manganese, Zinc, Chromium, and Selenium as Related to Prophylaxis and Treatment of Iron Deficiency
Bjørklund G, Aaseth J, Skalny AV, Suliburska J, Skalnaya MG, Nikonorov AA, Tinkov AA
J Trace Elem Med Biol 2017;41:41-53. PubMed PMID:

Manganese Exposure and Neurotoxic Effects in Children
Bjørklund G, Chartrand MS, Aaseth J
Environ Res 2017;155:380-384. PubMed PMID: 28282629

The Role of Zinc and Copper in Autism Spectrum Disorders
Bjørklund G
Acta Neurobiol Exp 2013; 73: 225–236. PubMed PMID: 23823984

Evaluation of Whole Blood Zinc and Copper Levels in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Crăciun EC, Bjørklund G, Tinkov AA, Urbina MA, Skalny AV, Rad F, Dronca E
Metab Brain Dis 2016;31:887-890. PubMed PMID: 27059237

Serum Copper and Zinc Levels in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Li SO, Wang JL, Bjørklund G, Zhao WN, Yin CH
Neuroreport 2014; 25: 1216–1220. PubMed PMID: 25162784

Hair Toxic and Essential Trace Elements in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Skalny AV, Klyushnik TP, Simashkova NV, Grabeklis AR, Bjørklund G, Skalnaya MG, Nikonorov AA, Tinkov AA
Metab Brain Dis 2017;32:195-202. PubMed PMID: 27581303

Air Pollution and Autism Spectrum Disorder

May Traffic Air Pollution be Involved in Autism Spectrum Disorder?
Chirumbolo S, Bjørklund G, Urbina MA
Environ Res 2016;154:57-59. PubMed PMID: 28038434

Toxic Metal-Based Pollutants and Autism Spectrum Disorder

*The Toxicology of Mercury: Current Research and Emerging Trends
Bjørklund G, Dadar M, Mutter J, Aaseth J
Environ Res 2017; In Press (IF 3.835)

Concerns about Environmental Mercury Toxicity: do we forget something else?
Bjørklund G, Bengtsson U, Chirumbolo S, Kern JK
Environ Res 2017;152:514-516. PubMed PMID: 27616662

Mercury as a Possible Link Between Maternal Obesity and Autism Spectrum Disorder
Nikonorov AA, Tinkov ASkalny AV, Skalnaya MG, Bjørklund G, Nikonorov AA, Tinkov AA
Med Hypotheses 2016; 91: 90-94. PubMed PMID: 27142153

Systematic Assessment of Research on Autism Spectrum Disorder and Mercury Reveals Conflicts of Interest and the Need for Transparency in Autism Research
Kern JK, Geier DA, Deth RC, Sykes LK, Hooker BS, Love JM, Bjørklund G, Chaigneau CG, Haley BE, Geier MR
Sci Eng Ethics. Article first published online: 27 Oct 2015. PubMed PMID: 26507205

Altered Urinary Porphyrins and Mercury Exposure as Biomarkers for Autism Severity in Egyptian Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Khaled EM, Meguid NA, Bjørklund G, Gouda A, Bahary MH, Hashish A, Sallam NM, Chirumbolo S, El-Bana MA
Metab Brain Dis 2016;31:1419-1426. PubMed PMID: 27406246

Levels of Metals in the Blood and Specific Porphyrins in the Urine in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Macedoni-Lukšič M, Gosar D, Bjørklund G, Oražem J, Kodrič J, Lešnik-Musek P, Zupančič M, France-Štiglic A, Sešek-Briški A, Neubauer D, Osredkar J
Biol Trace Elem Res 2015; 163: 2-10. PubMed PMID: 25234471

*Effects of Arsenic Toxicity beyond Epigenetic Modifications
Bjørklund G, Aaseth J, Chirumbolo S, Urbina MA, Uddin R
Environ Geochem Health 2017. doi: 10.1007/s10653-017-9967-9. PubMed PMID: 28484874

Molecular Interplay between Toxic Metals and Selenium

Molecular Interaction between Mercury and Selenium in Neurotoxicity
Bjørklund G, Aaseth J, Ajsuvakova OP, Nikonorov AA, Skalny AV, Skalnaya MG, Tinkov AA
Coord Chem Rev 2017;332:30-37

Relationship between Selenium, Lead, and Mercury in Red Blood Cells of Saudi Autistic Children 
El-Ansary A, Bjørklund G, Tinkov AA, Skalny A, Al Dera HS
Metab Brain Dis. 2017. doi:10.1007/s11011-017-9996-1.

Selenium as an Antidote in the Treatment of Mercury Intoxication
Bjørklund G
Biometals. 2015;28:605-614. PubMed PMID: 25947386

Inflammation and Immune Abnormalities in Autism Spectrum Disorder

Immune Dysfunction and Neuroinflammation in Autism Spectrum Disorder
Bjørklund G, Saad K, Chirumbolo S, Kern JK, Geier DA, Geier MR, Urbina MA
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) 2016;76:257-268. PubMed PMID: 28094817

The Levels of Blood Mercury and Inflammatory-related Neuropeptides in the Serum are Correlated in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Mostafa GA, Bjørklund G, Urbina MA, AL-Ayadhi LY
Metab Brain Dis 2016;31:593-599. PubMed PMID: 26738726

The Positive Association between Elevated Blood Lead Levels and Brain-specific Autoantibodies in Autistic Children from Low Lead-polluted Areas
Mostafa GA, Bjørklund G, Urbina MA, Al-Ayadhi LY
Metab Brain Dis 2016;31:1047-1054. PMID: 27250967


Vaccination is Fundamental but Can It Escape from a More Insightful and Critical Information about Its Action? 
Chirumbolo S, Bjørklund G
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2017;55:8–13. PubMed PMID: (IF 2.313)

Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors, Thimerosal, and Autism Spectrum Disorder
Bjørklund G, Chirumbolo S, Geier DA, Kern JK, Geier MR
Environ Res 2017;156:843–844. PubMed PMID: 28410622 (IF 3.088)

Biomarkers for Autism Spectrum Disorder

Predictive Value of Selected Biomarkers Related to Metabolism and Oxidative Stress in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
El-Ansary A, Bjørklund G, Chirumbolo S, Alnakhli OM
Metab Brain Dis 2017. doi: 10.1007/s11011-017-0029-x. PubMed PMID: 28497358

Related Research

Children with Asperger syndrome (in Norwegian)
Bjørklund G
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 1998; 118(10): 1567-1569. PubMed PMID: 9615585

Clinical Use of the Metal Chelators Calcium Disodium Edetate, DMPS, and DMSA
Bjørklund G
Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2015; 26: 611-612. PubMed PMID: 26022042