CONEM Autism Research

Autism is one of the primary research fields at the Council for Nutritional and Environmental Medicine (CONEM). This research is performed in extensive collaboration with international research environments.


Nutritional and Environmental Influences on Autism Spectrum Disorder
Bjørklund G, Chartrand M
J Nutr Disorders The 2016;6(1):e123. doi:10.4172/2161-0509.1000e123

Cerebral Hypoperfusion in Autism Spectrum Disorder
Bjørklund G, Kern JK, Urbina MA, Saad K, El-Houfey AA, Geier DA, Chirumbolo S, Geier MR, Mehta JA, Aaseth J
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) 2018;78:21-29. PubMed PMID: 29694338

Developmental Neurotoxicants and the Vulnerable Male Brain: A Systematic Review of Suspected Neurotoxicants that Disproportionally Affect Males 
Kern JK, Geier DA, Homme KG, King PG, Bjørklund G, Chirumbolo S, Geier MR
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) 2017;77:269-296. PubMed PMID: 29369294

Diet and Autism Spectrum Disorder

Acid Glycosaminoglycan (aGAG) Excretion is increased in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, and it can be controlled by Diet
Endreffy I, Bjørklund G, Dicső F, Urbina MA, Endreffy E
Metab Brain Dis 2016;31:273-278. PubMed PMID: 26464064

A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Digestive Enzymes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Saad K, Eltayeb AA, Mohamad IL, Al-Atram AA, Elserogy Y, Bjørklund G, El-Houfey AA, Nicholson B
Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci 2015;13:188-193. PubMed PMID:26243847

Dietary Adequacy of Egyptian Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Compared to Healthy Developing Children
Meguid NA, Anwar M, Bjørklund G, Hashish A, Chirumbolo S, Hemimi M, Sultan E
Metab Brain Dis. 2017;32:607-615. PubMed PMID: 28074329

Probiotic Treatment Reduces the Autistic-Like Excitation/Inhibition Imbalance in Juvenile Hamsters Induced by Orally Administered Propionic Acid and Clindamycin
El-Ansary A, Bacha AB, Bjørklund G, Al-Orf N, Bhat RS, Moubayed N, Abed K
Metab Brain Dis 2018;33:1155-1164. doi: 10.1007/s11011-018-0212-8. PubMed PMID: 29582256

Therapeutic Effects of Probiotics on Neurotoxicity Induced by Clindamycin and Propionic Acid in Juvenile Hamsters
Al-Orf N, El-Ansary A, Bjørklund G, Moubaye N, Shafi Bhat R, Ben Bacha A
Metabol Brain Dis 2018.  In press

Vitamins and Autism Spectrum Disorder

Vitamin D Deficiency: A Global Health Problem
Bjørklund G
Peertechz J Environ Sci Toxicol 2016; 1(1): 023-024

The Role of Vitamin D in the Immune System as a Pro-survival Molecule 
Chirumbolo S, Bjørklund G, Sboarina A, Vella A
Clinical Therapeutics 2017;39:894-916. PubMed PMID: 28438353 (IF 2.925)

In the Search for Reliable Biomarkers for the Early Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Role of Vitamin D 
El-Ansary A, Cannell JJ, Bjørklund G, Bhat RS, Al Dbass AM, Alfawaz HA, Chirumbolo S, Al-Ayadhi L
Metab Brain Dis 2018;33:917-931. doi: 10.1007/s11011-018-0199-1. PubMed PMID: 29497932

Vitamin D Status in Autism Spectrum Disorders and the Efficacy of Vitamin D Supplementation in Autistic Children
Saad K, Abdel-rahman AA, Elserogy YM, Al-Atram AA, Cannell JJ, Bjørklund G, Abdel-Reheim MK, Othman HAK, El-Houfey AA, Hashem EA, Abd El-Aziz NHR, Abd El-Baseer KA, Ahmed AE, Ali AM
Nutr Neurosci 2016;19:346-351. PubMed PMID: 25876214

Amino Acids and Autism Spectrum Disorder

*How Important is Tryptophan in Human Health?
Kałużna-Czaplińska J, Gątarek P, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Chartrand MS, Bjørklund G
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2017. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2017.1357534. PubMed PMID: 28799778

Tryptophan Status in Autism Spectrum Disorder and the Influence of Supplementation on Its Level
Kałużna-Czaplińska J, Jóźwik-Pruska J, Chirumbolo S, Bjørklund G
Metab Brain Dis 2017;32:1585-1593. PubMed PMID: 28608247

ADHD, Autism and Neuroradiological Complications among Phenylketonuric Children in Upper Egypt
Saad K, Elserogy Y, Abdel Rahman AA, Al-Atram AA, Mohamad IL, ElMelegy TTH, Bjørklund G, El-Houfy AA
Acta Neurol Belg. 2015; 115(4): 657-663. PubMed PMID: 25576444

Essential Trace Elements and Autism Spectrum Disorder

Interactions of Iron with Manganese, Zinc, Chromium, and Selenium as Related to Prophylaxis and Treatment of Iron Deficiency
Bjørklund G, Aaseth J, Skalny AV, Suliburska J, Skalnaya MG, Nikonorov AA, Tinkov AA
J Trace Elem Med Biol 2017;41:41-53. PubMed PMID:

Manganese Exposure and Neurotoxic Effects in Children
Bjørklund G, Chartrand MS, Aaseth J
Environ Res 2017;155:380-384. PubMed PMID: 28282629

The Role of Zinc and Copper in Autism Spectrum Disorders
Bjørklund G
Acta Neurobiol Exp 2013; 73: 225–236. PubMed PMID: 23823984

Evaluation of Whole Blood Zinc and Copper Levels in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Crăciun EC, Bjørklund G, Tinkov AA, Urbina MA, Skalny AV, Rad F, Dronca E
Metab Brain Dis 2016;31:887-890. PubMed PMID: 27059237

Serum Copper and Zinc Levels in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Li SO, Wang JL, Bjørklund G, Zhao WN, Yin CH
Neuroreport 2014; 25: 1216–1220. PubMed PMID: 25162784

Plasma Concentrations of the Trace Elements Copper, Zinc and Selenium in Brazilian Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Saldanha Tschinkel PF, Bjørklund G, Zanoni Conón LZ, Chirumbolo S, Nascimento VA
Biomed Pharmacother 2018. In press. PubMed PMID:

Selenium and Autism Spectrum Disorder
Skalny AV, Skalnaya MG, Bjørklund G, Gritsenko VA, Aaseth J, Tinkov AA
In: Michalke B (ed) Selenium. Molecular and Integrative Toxicology. Basel: Springer, 2018.

Hair Toxic and Essential Trace Elements in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Skalny AV, Klyushnik TP, Simashkova NV, Grabeklis AR, Bjørklund G, Skalnaya MG, Nikonorov AA, Tinkov AA
Metab Brain Dis 2017;32:195-202. PubMed PMID: 27581303

Assessment of Gender and Age Effects on Serum and Hair Trace Element Levels in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Skalny AV, Simashkova NV, Skalnaya AA, Klyushnik TP, Bjørklund G, Skalnaya MG, Tinkov AA
Metab Brain Dis 2017;32:1675-1684. doi: 10.1007/s11011-017-0056-7. PubMed PMID: 28664504

Association Between Catatonia and Levels of Hair and Serum Trace Elements and Minerals in Autism Spectrum Disorder
Tinkov A, Klyushnik T, Simashkova N, Notova S, Kiyaeva E, Skalnaya A, Skalny A, Bjørklund G, Skalnaya M
Biomed Pharmacother 2018. Accepted

Air Pollution and Autism Spectrum Disorder

May Traffic Air Pollution be Involved in Autism Spectrum Disorder?
Chirumbolo S, Bjørklund G, Urbina MA
Environ Res 2016;154:57-59. PubMed PMID: 28038434

Toxic Metal(loid)s and Autism Spectrum Disorder

Toxic Metal(loid)-Based Pollutants and their Possible Role in Autism Spectrum Disorder 
Bjørklund G, Skalny AV, Rahman MM, Dadar M, Yassa HA, Aaseth J, Chirumbolo S, Skalnaya MG, Tinkov AA
Environ Res 2018;166:234-250. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.05.020. PubMed PMID: 29902778

*The Toxicology of Mercury: Current Research and Emerging Trends
Bjørklund G, Dadar M, Mutter J, Aaseth J
Environ Res 2017; In Press (IF 3.835)

Concerns about Environmental Mercury Toxicity: do we forget something else?
Bjørklund G, Bengtsson U, Chirumbolo S, Kern JK
Environ Res 2017;152:514-516. PubMed PMID: 27616662

Mercury as a Possible Link Between Maternal Obesity and Autism Spectrum Disorder
Nikonorov AA, Tinkov AA, Skalny AV, Skalnaya MG, Bjørklund G, Nikonorov AA, Tinkov AA
Med Hypotheses 2016; 91: 90-94. PubMed PMID: 27142153

Altered Urinary Porphyrins and Mercury Exposure as Biomarkers for Autism Severity in Egyptian Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Khaled EM, Meguid NA, Bjørklund G, Gouda A, Bahary MH, Hashish A, Sallam NM, Chirumbolo S, El-Bana MA
Metab Brain Dis 2016;31:1419-1426. PubMed PMID: 27406246

Levels of Metals in the Blood and Specific Porphyrins in the Urine in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Macedoni-Lukšič M, Gosar D, Bjørklund G, Oražem J, Kodrič J, Lešnik-Musek P, Zupančič M, France-Štiglic A, Sešek-Briški A, Neubauer D, Osredkar J
Biol Trace Elem Res 2015; 163: 2-10. PubMed PMID: 25234471

*Effects of Arsenic Toxicity beyond Epigenetic Modifications
Bjørklund G, Aaseth J, Chirumbolo S, Urbina MA, Uddin R
Environ Geochem Health 2017. doi: 10.1007/s10653-017-9967-9. PubMed PMID: 28484874

Molecular Interplay between Toxic Metals and Selenium

Molecular Interaction between Mercury and Selenium in Neurotoxicity
Bjørklund G, Aaseth J, Ajsuvakova OP, Nikonorov AA, Skalny AV, Skalnaya MG, Tinkov AA
Coord Chem Rev 2017;332:30-37

Relationship between Selenium, Lead, and Mercury in Red Blood Cells of Saudi Autistic Children 
El-Ansary A, Bjørklund G, Tinkov AA, Skalny A, Al Dera HS
Metab Brain Dis. 2017. doi:10.1007/s11011-017-9996-1.

Selenium as an Antidote in the Treatment of Mercury Intoxication
Bjørklund G
Biometals. 2015;28:605-614. PubMed PMID: 25947386

Metal Chelators and Neurotoxicity

Clinical Use of the Metal Chelators Calcium Disodium Edetate, DMPS, and DMSA
Bjørklund G
Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2015; 26: 611-612. PubMed PMID: 26022042

Metal Chelators and Neurotoxicity: Lead, Mercury, and Arsenic
Bjørklund G, Mutter J, Aaseth J
Arch Toxicol 2017;91:3787-3797. PubMed PMID: 29063135

Neuroinflammation and Immune Abnormalities in Autism Spectrum Disorder

Immune Dysfunction and Neuroinflammation in Autism Spectrum Disorder
Bjørklund G, Saad K, Chirumbolo S, Kern JK, Geier DA, Geier MR, Urbina MA
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) 2016;76:257-268. PubMed PMID: 28094817

The Levels of Blood Mercury and Inflammatory-Related Neuropeptides in the Serum are Correlated in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Mostafa GA, Bjørklund G, Urbina MA, AL-Ayadhi LY
Metab Brain Dis 2016;31:593-599. PubMed PMID: 26738726

The Positive Association between Elevated Blood Lead Levels and Brain-specific Autoantibodies in Autistic Children from Low Lead-polluted Areas
Mostafa GA, Bjørklund G, Urbina MA, Al-Ayadhi LY
Metab Brain Dis 2016;31:1047-1054. PMID: 27250967

Impaired Lipid Metabolism Markers to Assess the Risk of Neuroinflammation in Autism Spectrum Disorder
Qasem H, Al-Ayadhi L, Bjørklund G, Chirumbolo S, El-Ansary A
Metab Brain Dis 2018;33:1141-1153. doi: 10.1007/s11011-018-0206-6. PubMed PMID: 29569150

Vaccination, Thimerosal, and Autism Spectrum Disorder

Vaccination is Fundamental but Can It Escape from a More Insightful and Critical Information about Its Action? 
Chirumbolo S, Bjørklund G
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2017;55:8–13. PubMed PMID: (IF 2.313)

Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors, Thimerosal, and Autism Spectrum Disorder
Bjørklund G, Chirumbolo S, Geier DA, Kern JK, Geier MR
Environ Res 2017;156:843–844. PubMed PMID: 28410622 (IF 3.088)

Systematic Assessment of Research on Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Mercury Reveals Conflicts of Interest and the Need for Transparency in Autism Research
Kern JK, Geier DA, Deth RC, Sykes LK, Hooker BS, Love JM, Bjørklund G, Chaigneau CG, Haley BE, Geier MR
Sci Eng Ethics 2017;23:1691-1718. PubMed PMID: 29119411

Neurotransmitters and Autism Spectrum Disorder

Relationship between Absolute and Relative Ratios of Glutamate, Glutamine and GABA and Severity of Autism Spectrum Disorder
Al-Otaish H, Al-Ayadhi L, Bjørklund G, Chirumbolo S, Urbina MA, El-Ansary A
Metab Brain Dis 2018;33:843-854. doi: 10.1007/s11011-018-0186-6. PubMed PMID: 29397522.

Biomarkers for Autism Spectrum Disorder

Diagnostic and Severity-Tracking Biomarkers for Autism Spectrum Disorder
Bjørklund G, Meguid NA, El-Ansary A, El-Bana MA, Dadar M, Aaseth J, Hemimi M, Osredkar J, Chirumbolo S
J Mol Neurosci 2018

Metabolism-Associated Markers and Childhood Autism Rating Scales (CARS) as a Measure of Autism Severity 
El-Ansary A, Bjørklund G, Khemakhem AM, Al-Ayadhi L, Chirumbolo S, Ben Bacha A
J Mol Neurosci. 2018. doi: 10.1007/s12031-018-1091-5. PubMed PMID: 29931502

Predictive Value of Selected Biomarkers Related to Metabolism and Oxidative Stress in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
El-Ansary A, Bjørklund G, Chirumbolo S, Alnakhli OM
Metab Brain Dis 2017;32:1209-1221. PubMed PMID: 28497358

The Use of Multi-Parametric Biomarker Profiles May Increase the Accuracy of ASD Prediction
Hassan WM, Al-Ayadhi L, Bjørklund G, Alabdali A, Chirumbolo S, El-Ansary A
J Mol Neurosci 2018. In press