What is Autism Spectrum Disorder?

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that can cause significant social, communication and behavioural challenges. This video explores the previous and updated diagnostic criteria for ASD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). In 2013 was the new edition of this manual published (DSM-5). The DSM-5 redefined the autism spectrum to encompass the previous (DSM-IV-TR) diagnoses of autism, Asperger syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), and childhood disintegrative disorder. Autistic individuals are now placed on a continuum depending on the severity of their symptoms.

ADHD, Autism, and Phenylketonuria

Acta Neurologica BelgicaResearchers at Assiut University have in collaboration with Geir Bjørklund evaluated the neuropsychological status in 78 children with early and continuously treated phenylketonuria (PKU) in Assiut, Upper Egypt. The article was on 10 January  2015 published online first in Acta Neurologica BelgicaThe first author of the study, Khaled Saad, is Associate Professor of Pediatrics at Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt. Bjørklund is founder and president of the Council for Nutritional and Environmental Medicine (CONEM).

 

Khaled Saad, Yasser Elserogy, Ahmed A. Abdel rahman, Abdulrahman Abdullah Al-Atram, Ismail L. Mohamad, Tarek T. H. ElMelegy, Geir Bjørklund, and Amira A. El-Houfy

ADHD, autism and neuroradiological complications among phenylketonuric children in Upper Egypt

Acta Neurol Belg. Article first published online: 10 JAN 2015. doi: 10.1007/s13760-014-0422-8 

 

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to evaluate the neuropsychological status in a cohort of children with early and continuously treated phenylketonuria in Assiut, Upper Egypt. The study was implemented in seventy-eight phenylketonuria (PKU) children. Only 34 patients met the inclusion criteria. Investigated patients were evaluated according to detailed history, neurological examination, Childhood Autism Rating Scale, full scale Intelligence Quotient, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, electroencephalography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study concluded that the prognosis for early diagnosed children with PKU treated from the first weeks of life is generally good. However, they are at increased risk for neurological complications and behavioral problems. So, neonatal screening for PKU is highly recommended in Egypt, for early detection and management. In addition, neuropsychological and MRI assessments in PKU children should be done.

 

 

GI Health and the Autsm Cascade (Lecture)

Liz Lipski, PhD, CCN is academic director of Nutrition & Integrative Health Programs at Maryland University of Integrative Health in Laurel, Maryland. She is author of the books Digestive Wellness, Digestion Connection, and Digestive Wellness for Children. Lipski is also a CONEM member. In this lecture, Dr. Lipski talks about digestive health issues in autism spectrum disorders. Many people on the spectrum have digestive health issues such as irritable bowel syndrome, pain, gas, bloating, diarrhea, constipation, bacterial and/or fungal infections, heartburn and more. This lecture focuses on understanding what problems can occur and offer practical solutions to enhance overall health by balancing digestive issues. This includes testing, special diets, and use of supplements and herbs for common issues. This lecture was held on 13 October 2012 at the Fall 2012 Autism Research Institute Conference in Garden Grove, California.

The Toxicity of Mercury and Its Relationship to Neurological Illnesses and Oxidative Stress (Lecture)

Boyd E. Haley, Ph.D. is professor emeritus and former chairman of the Department of Chemistry at the University of Kentucky. He is president and CEO of CTI Science, a Lexington, Kentucky-based bio-technology firm. Haley is also a CONEM member. In this lecture, Professor Haley talks about mercury and other heavy metals, and their relationship to neurological illnesses (especially autism) and oxidative stress. The lecture was held in March 2010 at an IAOMT conference in Galloway, New Jersey.

The Role of Zinc and Copper in Autism Spectrum Disorders

Acta Neurobiol Exp 2013, 2Children with Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) appear to be at risk for zinc (Zn) deficiency, copper (Cu) toxicity, have often low Zn/Cu ratio, and often disturbed metallothionein (MT) system functioning. The evidence presented in this paper suggests that providing Zn to autistic children may be an important component of a treatment protocol, especially in children with Zn deficiency. It is important to monitor and follow the values for both Cu and Zn together during Zn therapy, because these two trace elements are both antagonists in function, and essential for living cells. 

The review article by Geir Bjørklund is published in Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis (2013; 73 (2): 225–236). This peer-reviewed journal is published by Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology in Warsaw, Poland. Bjørklund is founder and president of Council for Nutritional and Environmental Medicine (CONEM).

 

Geir Bjørklund

The role of zinc and copper in autism spectrum disorders

Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) 2013; 73 (2): 225-236 

 

ABSTRACT

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of developmental disabilities that can cause significant social, communication and behavioral challenges. Several studies have suggested a disturbance in the copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) metabolism in ASDs. Zinc deficiency, excess Cu levels, and low Zn/Cu ratio are common in children diagnosed with an ASD. The literature also suggests that mercury accumulation may occur as a cause or consequence of metallothionein (MT) dysfunction in children diagnosed with an ASD, which may be one of the causes of Zn deficiency. MTs are proteins with important functions in metal metabolism and protection. Zinc and Cu bind to and participate in the control of the synthesis of MT proteins. Studies indicate that the GABAergic system may be involved in ASDs, and that Zn and Cu may play a role in this system.